What is Tennis Elbow?

Tennis Elbow, or lateral epicondylitis, is a painful condition caused by inflammation of the muscle and tendon area on the outside of the elbow. This repetitive strain injury is not limited to tennis players – in fact, only 5% of those with Tennis Elbow actually play tennis.

  • Nearly 50% of tennis players suffer from Tennis Elbow.
  • 30% of repetitive task hand workers suffer from Tennis Elbow.

There are 2 additional strain related conditions which are often mistaken for Tennis Elbow – Golfer’s Elbow & Bursitis. Before we delve into the details of what Tennis Elbow actually is and options that are available for relieving & preventing the pain… let’s look at the distinguishing characteristics of each of these 3 ailments.


Back of Elbow

Often due to excessive leaning on the joint or a direct blow or fall onto the tip of the elbow.

A lump can often be seen and the elbow is painful at the back of the joint.

golfers_elbow_reliefGolfer’s Elbow (medial epicondylitis)

Inside of Elbow

The causes of golfers elbow are similar to tennis elbow but pain and tenderness are felt on the inside (medial) of the elbow, on or around the joint’s bony prominence.

Tennis Elbow (lateral epicondylitis)

Outside of Elbow

The onset of pain, on the outside (lateral) of the elbow, is usually gradual with tenderness felt on or below the joint’s bony prominence. Movements such as gripping, lifting and carrying tend to be troublesome.

Symptoms Of Tennis Elbow

  • Recurring pain on the outside of the upper forearm just below the bend of the elbow; occasionally, pain radiates down the arm toward the wrist.
  • Pain caused by lifting or bending the arm or grasping even light objects such as a coffee cup.
  • Difficulty extending the forearm fully (because of inflamed muscles, tendons and ligaments).
  • Pain that typically lasts for 6 to 12 weeks; the discomfort can continue for as little as 3 weeks or as long as several years.

The damage that tennis elbow incurs consists of tiny tears in a part of the tendon and in muscle coverings. After the initial injury heals, these areas often tear again, which leads to hemorrhaging and the formation of rough, granulated tissue and calcium deposits within the surrounding tissues. Collagen, a protein, leaks out from around the injured areas, causing inflammation. The resulting pressure can cut off the blood flow and pinch the radial nerve, one of the major nerves controlling muscles in the arm and hand.

Tendons, which attach muscles to bones, do not receive the same amount of oxygen and blood that muscles do, so they heal more slowly. In fact, some cases of tennis elbow can last for years, though the inflammation usually subsides in 6 to 12 weeks.

Many medical textbooks treat tennis elbow as a form of tendonitis, which is often the case, but if the muscles and bones of the elbow joint are also involved, then the condition is called epicondylitis. However, if you feel pain directly on the back of your elbow joint, rather than down the outside of your arm, you may have bursitis, which is caused when lubricating sacs in the joint become inflamed. If you see swelling, which is almost never a symptom of tennis elbow, you may want to investigate other possible conditions, such as arthritis, infection, gout or a tumor.

Relief Of Tennis Elbow

The best way to relieve tennis elbow is to stop doing anything that irritates your arm — a simple step for the weekend tennis player, but not as easy for the manual laborer, office worker, or professional athlete.

The most effective conventional and alternative treatments for tennis elbow have the same basic premise: Rest the arm until the pain disappears, then massage to relieve stress and tension in the muscles, and exercise to strengthen the area and prevent re-injury. If you must go back to whatever caused the problem in the first place, be sure to warm up your arm for at least 5 to 10 minutes with gentle stretching and movement before starting any activity. Take frequent breaks.

Conventional medicine offers an assortment of treatments for tennis elbow, from drug injections to surgery, but the pain will never go away completely unless you stop stressing the joint. Re-injury is inevitable without adequate rest.

For most mild to moderate cases of tennis elbow, aspirin or ibuprofen will help address the inflammation and the pain while you are resting the injury, and then you can follow up with exercise and massage to speed healing.

For stubborn cases of tennis elbow your doctor may advise corticosteroid injections, which dramatically reduce inflammation, but they cannot be used long-term because of potentially damaging side effects. Another attractive option for many sufferers, especially those who prefer to not ingest medication orally, is the application of an appropriate and effective topical anti-inflammatory such as Penetrex.

If rest, anti-inflammatory medications, and a stretching routine fail to cure your tennis elbow, you may have to consider surgery, though this form of treatment is rare (fewer than 3 percent of patients). One procedure is for the tendon to be cut loose from the epicondyle, the rounded bump at the end of the bone, which eliminates stress on the tendon but renders the muscle useless. Another surgical technique involves removing so-called granulated tissue in the tendon and repairing tears.

Even after you feel you have overcome a case of tennis elbow, be sure to continue babying your arm. Always warm up your arm for 5 to 10 minutes before starting any activity involving your elbow. And if you develop severe pain after use anyway, pack your arm in ice for 15 to 20 minutes and call your doctor.


To prevent tennis elbow:

  • Lift objects with your palm facing your body.
  • Try strengthening exercises with hand weights. With your elbow cocked and your palm down, repeatedly bend your wrist. Stop if you feel any pain.
  • Stretch relevant muscles before beginning a possibly stressful activity by grasping the top part of your fingers and gently but firmly pulling them back toward your body. Keep your arm fully extended and your palm facing outward.

To prevent a relapse:

  • Discontinue or modify the action that is causing the strain on your elbow joint.
  • If you must continue, be sure to warm up for 10 minutes or more before any activity involving your arm, and apply ice to it afterward.
  • Take more frequent breaks.
  • Try strapping a band around your forearm just below your elbow. If the support seems to help you lift objects such as heavy books, then continue with it. Be aware that such bands can cut off circulation and impede healing, so they are best used once tennis elbow has disappeared.